Paul Kenneth Bernardo; A Canadian serial killer astrological and biographical case study
As per our Indian philosophy, belief and tradition we believe that there were 4 Yuga’s namely satyayuga, dwaparyuga, tretayuga and then now kaliyuga, it is said that now in kaliyuga bad deeds are in vogue and bad people are everywhere. Humanity is at its lowest place and there are people roaming around the streets who by outer look are like humans but internally they are animals. Astrology is a great toll that helps us understand inner nature, personality and soul of a person maybe for that reason sage have developed it and based on this and insights provided by this we can make our lives better by understanding our karmas and past mistakes that we have made and due to them we are now suffering. But this all is for those who are awaken by inside, those who are slept inside those who doesn’t have any spark of divinity inside them for them astrology is unbelievable, it is because the knowledge of our ancient seers pervades our limited understanding and those who are slept at soul level can never understand this, for this reason sages have used spirituality along with astrology and only for this reason it is very important for an astrologer to have some spiritual ground. Because only by walking on this way, we can understand the language of our sages and can be human in its truest sense.
Today I am going to analyze chart of man who as per me doesn’t have any spark of divinity and is even more worse than animal and let we find out which astrological combinations made him like this.
His name is “Paul Kenneth Bernardo” right now he is under imprisonment. Because, he did sexual assault on 19 women. Along with that raped and tortured 3 women and assaulted them, filmed them, practised cruelty over them and killed them. His wife helped him doing all this. He was well educated then why he did this, this is what we try to find out with his horoscope.
His chart casted using these details is correct on the criteria of birth time rectification too.
Story Starts – a child with this much achievement can only be of parents of the same stature, it is the place where I do think that our Indian society and cultures are far better than of western world.
His father abused his own daughter sexually – his mars is highly afflicted because he is in Mrityu Bhag as well as defeated in planetary war with Venus. Mars being a planet of power, anger, vitality, virility when is weak or afflicted shows wrong use of power and authority (he becomes depositor of sun when sun becomes exalted) also weakness of Venus or Mars or their extra powerful influence on chart makes a person sexually pervert, weak, the one who can’t control his desires and fantasy (Mars is responsible for exaltation of Sun and debilitation of moon and Venus is cause of debilitation of sun and exaltation of moon they both are also each other’s enemy as their signs as always 1-7 to each other).
Any imbalance between them clearly shows lack on synchronization between sun and moon that is soul and mind, intellect and emotions, emotions and actions.
We can here notice Mars is weak due to being defeated in planetary war and being in MB (Mrityu Bhag) and Venus is extremely powerful being in Pushkar Amsha and winner in planetary war. Venus in D1 is in friend’s house who is fast friend too. (5 fold relationship of planets) and in navamsha he is in own house whereas mars in D1 is neechabhilashi (going towards its debilitation and in D1 as well as in D9 is in enemy’s sign. Further Rahu with this combination spoils this for worse.
Also here Rahu is co-lord of 6th house that shows Shadripu (6 weakness of human being and sexuality, excess of anything, anger is few of them) Venus is AK and Mars is AmK thus he have spoiled almost everything in chart. Now just change our focus to 9th house and we can see it’s all happening in 2nd from 9th house that is 8th from 7th house from 9th house (boundary of marriage for father) here from 9th house it is a conjunction of 6th 7th 12th 1st house lords. Venus and mars is in very close conjunction. 7th and 12th house of sex and 6th house of weakness and 8th house lord from 9th house that also represents sex is in 9th house from ascendant. Now see PK in the chart.
Now just come to MK that is used for predicting things related to 4th house in Jaimini astrology and BK who is representative of 3rd house Shri K.N.Rao says use MK and moon for mother and BK and sun for father and I do use MK for both of them as jaimini haven’t given separate karaka for father.
So karaka for parents is the one MK that can be used for both mother and father here no matter which method you use. Either it be of 7 char karakas of K.N.Rao, 8 char karakas of Sanjay Rath or mixed 78 char Karakas as suggested by jaimini and parashara we can see a simple thing that GK this is representative of 6th house of disease, illness, weakness, have jaimini aspect on them. So we can say 2 things from here first both his parents have had some weakness (its normal in human beings but not when it is all in bad houses) and he never liked any one of them and developed hatred for them later in his life.
Till now we have seen for father what about mother. When Paul was 16 years old he argument with his parents where his mother told him that he was illegitimate child (who was born due to her physical contact with one lover of her) after this incident he stated calling his mother with abusive words (what a bad experience on the mind of an 16 year old – this once again shows why Indian beliefs and rules have to be followed all over the world for the sake of humanity to live humanly) how to find he was in illegitimate child is out of context of this case study. When we focus on 4th house of his chart we can see the conjunction between Rahu, Mars, and Venus is being made in 7th from 4th house doesn’t it indicates the event.
Venus is 6th lord of weakness and 11th lord of social circle, multiple partners. 4th lord is in 6th house from 4th house once again showing weakness of his mother. This all is happening in 10th house that is house of work in any chart and it shows how all these events influenced his works and his doings in society. Parashara mentions that is there are malefic in 10th house it shows works of native will be bad here 10th house having 2 malefic under which Rahu is exalted and mars is a weak and afflicted malefic. And Venus an afflicted benefic shows about his karma also to notice here is Venus is 2nd lord and Rahu by his 5th aspect aspects 5th house.
If in any horoscope 10th house and 2nd house and their lords are afflicted then that person can never reach on spiritual heights. He will make bad deeds and whole of his life will be busy in making bad deeds and can never come out of those consequences of bad deeds and his life will be just doing bad deeds and suffering their reactions.
Retrograde malefic aspected by another retrograde malefic is like living hell and here in this condition mercury and Saturn both are retrograde mercury being with sun in malefic and aspected by another retrograde malefic made it so bad and afflicted that his karmas 10th house was bad and his sexual tendencies 12th house were also bad. 2 malefic in 12th house aspected by another powerful malefic Saturn from 6th house who is 5th lord of Punya and 6th lord of weakness. Thus it is affliction of 10th lord of karmas ascendant lord of self native, 12th lord of sex and 5th lord of Punya.
With 6th lord of weakness and Ripu. Thus it made him sexual sadist (Saturn is sadist in itself he by being aspected by retrograde malefic mercury bitter enemy Sun and co-lord of 6th and highly malefic Rahu whose 9th aspect that shows bad deeds of past life made the condition more worse) thus as a result Paul was a sexual sadist and pervert. His 7th lord Jupiter seems in good condition in D1 but in D9 he is debilitated in 9th house of Purva Punya. Aspected by retrograde mars (again living hell in 9th house of D9 that shows Dharma of a person). He in D9 is also aspected by malefic Sun.
the same Jupiter is also 7th lord from Venus and 7th lord from moon and 7th karak is Venus whose affliction we have already seen. Worst over all these is the fact that his DK is also Jupiter from all 3 schemes of Char Karaka. This shows that his spouse “Karla Homolka” also helped him doing all this. His wife used to find girls with him, tortured all women with him, filmed all of them while Paul raping them and was also responsible equally in the crime committed. He was a sexual pervert surrounded with another sexual pervert people that were his father, mother and wife.
In university he developed dark sexual fantasies, he enjoyed humiliating women, and public beating all the women he dated. Here we have to see Jupiter who is in 9th house of university and Venus who is karaka for love affair and girlfriends and Mercury who represents education as well as friends of opposite sex.
We have already seen their affliction in earlier parts of this write-up now coming to D24 chart in 9th house of university education we can see nodes which shows education lasted only up to this level. Nodes in 9th house is with mercury lord of 2nd house showing this education terminated after bachelors degree and 2nd lord being afflicted who shows masters degree indicates he never opted for masters degree. Saturn is retrograde in his chart and if we take rule provided by Bhrigu Rishi and if we see Saturn as in 9th house then it will be Saturn and nodes in 9th house.
That shows heavy affliction to 9th house. Also in D24 his Venus is in 12th house with sun again Sun is in MKS showing his soul has died. In his D10 there are 3 planets in 6th house and one in 7th house showing he only did job. In 6th house of D10 the most powerful planet is Venus in friends sign and 10th house is aspected by Saturn from 10th house that shows he was salesman in Amway.
His Venus is also in 10th house in D1 and is the most powerful planet in his 10th house in D1 too. In D9 also his 10th lord is in sign of Venus once again showing his career as salesman.
She came – in October 1987 he met Karla, they became sexually attracted (this is the definition of love in western world – one more reason to proud on Indian culture) she encouraged his sadistic sexual behavior. It was period of Rahu-Mercury-Sun (I am starting vimshottari dasha from ascendant because there is no planet in Kendra to moon whereas from ascendant there are 4 planets) Rahu is 6th lord in 10th house who is afflicting Venus his sexuality who is also 9th lord of dharma and mars who is 3rd lord of sexual attraction and 8th lord of sexuality and hidden desires, sadist nature.
In navamsha Rahu is in 7th house. Afflicting 7th house here let me explain difference between 7th and 9th house 9th house is dharma and main cause for which marriage is done in Indian society that is one of the dharma the reason for which marriage was created and it comes under 16 basic rituals of Hinduism. Whereas 7th house is mainly related to sex and physical contact and partner.
That’s why D9 is seen for marriage that is Dharma Patni and D7 for children that arises out of physical relationship. This is why jaimini haven’t chosen A7 to be seen for marriage it is only seen for physical relationship. Jaimini sutras are based on south Indian script that is KaTaPaYaDi method.
Then in AD there is mercury that in D1 is in 12th house of sex and lord of 5th house of love and attraction in D9. PD was of sun that in D1 is in 12th house and in D3 is in 3rd house of friendship and sexual fantasies, in D1 he is 12th lord of sexual house and in D9 he is 4th lord of chastity. He in D9 is afflicted by Rahu and can’t be saved by aspect of debilitated Jupiter. In Transit Rahu was in 7th house from his ascendant and with Jupiter because he was retro also take him paced in previous house and Saturn and Jupiter both by dual transit was activating his 12th house of sex.
Crimes committed (whose criminal record can be found) –
1. 4 May 1987, Rape, 21 Yr Old women, ½ Hours attack. – Rahu and Mercury we have already seen are not giving him marriage but sexual fulfillment only. Off course in other cases we have to judge natal chart first then have to decide the result because mere watching at that dasha planet is not connected to 9th house in D9 we can’t say it is just a physical love. Whole chart have to be taken as there are so many adulterous Yogas in the chart that I will explain later we can conclude it was just physical attraction we will see involvement of dasha planets in adulterous yoga.
PD, SD, PAD was of Venus who is 9th lord of D1 dharma afflicted in 10th house with Rahu see once again Rahu. In D9 ascendant that Venus with mars and Ketu are afflicted and with moon is making adulterous yoga. Venus is prostitute and Moon is the one who have stolen the wife of Jupiter thus he highly adulterous and this yoga have been confirmed by energy turned bad Mars and evil eye Rahu.
Here I want to tell some adulterous Yoga but apply them with caution. If mercury is in trine to moon in D9 then it is an adulterous yoga whereas mercury in trine to Jupiter in D9 can nullify this.
If 2nd and 7th house of D9 is lorded or aspected by Mars and Venus by rashi aspect then it is an adulterous Yogas Jupiter’s aspect on 2nd or 7th house or mars or Venus will make the yoga worsen. Here see 7th house is lorded by Mars where Rahu is and this house is also aspected by Venus and Mars using planetary aspect that shows desire. Means it doesn’t happen at own the native desired and worked for it.
Jupiter by rashi aspect aspected this 7th house and by rashi and planetary aspect both it aspected mars and Venus mars is the main yoga forming planet here and Venus is the one who is in charge of the yoga. See in D7 Rahu is in 2nd house 8th from 7th with Gulika, Gulika shows flaws, curses, our ancient sages said if gulika be posited in ascendant there is flaw in intelligence of the native if it be with moon then flaw in mentality and if be with sun flaw in soul is there. Gulika with moon affects longevity very badly here in his chart Sun and Moon both is in MKS and Ascendant is with gulika and maandi. Thus it shows his souls level. His Lagna is 13 degree and gulika is 18 degree. See how close the conjunction is.
In D7 that same Venus is in 6th house of weakness in Scorpio with Mars and Jupiter as it is sign of mars where mars is placed in Jupiter was not able to protect and mars being the main planet in formation of Adulterous yoga worsen the situation. That day moon was in cancer 11th sign from his ascendant where A7 is. We already know 11th house is for completion of desire also sometimes it is for sex out of marriage due to own wish as it is house of wishes and A7 shows physical relationships only. Sun was in 8th house of sex 12th loss from UL.
2. 14 May 1987, Rape, 19 year old women, 1 hour assault – only PAD was changed to Rahu. We have seen how Rahu is in 10th house afflicting Venus and Mars he is also 6th lord of mistakes and in D9 he is in 7th house in D7 he is in 2nd house that day moon was transiting his 3rd house from ascendant trine to A7. Sun was in 8th house 12th from UL.
3. 17 July 1987, Attempted Rape, 15 year old girl, Paul have beaten that women – SD of Rahu and PAD of Venus was only change in the dasha scheme. Moon was in his 7th house he attempted to rape that girl and also beaten her but was unsuccessful because moon was with Rahu who is 6th lord from his ascendant thus he was fighting with the girl but as Rahu is enemy of moon he failed. Sun was in 3rd house being a malefic 3rd from UL he was good saved UL.
One classics dictum says that in female horoscope (in modern context it is also applicable to male horoscope) is Venus in D9 is in his own sign or in sign of mars or Saturn aspected by mars or Saturn it will make women characterless. Here he is a guy but Venus is in his own sign with sun and Saturn being retrograde if we take his aspect from 7th house he will complete the yoga.
6. 23 December 1987, Rape, 17 year old girl, Raped with knife – Jupiter was gone from PAD to SD and Rahu came to PAD giving lethal touch to the event and signifying use of knife while the criminal deeds. It is evident that in these types of events which are happening at a small interval PAD plays an important and decisive role. We have seen role of Rahu and Jupiter in adulterous yoga in the chart. Moon was in 5th house with Venus in 7th to A7 and sun was in 4th house 8th from UL and 6th from A7. With Saturn and mercury. Once again Saturn is here showing the accuracy of the dictum of parashara that he stated with respect to character in female chart. Here readers need to note that Saturn and mars effect on moon when they are in sign of these planets or in how own sign makes a person ascetic and the same with Venus makes a person adulterous here moon and Venus are together that pity is that is sign of Venus where he is powerful and moon to being exalted was able to ward off de-attaching effect of Saturn and was evolved in physical desire provided by Venus.
7. 18 April 1988, Rape, 17 year old girl, 45 minutes – Moon PAD we have seen role of moon just in last few lines, in transit moon and Venus both were on UL although benefic they make adulterous yoga on UL. Sun was in 12th from UL shows expenditure of UL and 10th from A7 showing work related to A7 that is physical relationship.
8. 25 May 1988, nearly caught the women but she escaped, he was stalking the women when at night she departed from metro to go home. PAD was of Mars although he is in those yoga’s but he is weak, he can afflict Venus and give more and power to Rahu but isn’t able to do anything at his own due to his weakness. Thus event hasn’t materialized. For the first time he was not even able to tough the girl. Moon was in ascendant 3rd from A7 being a benefic bad for A7 and trine to UL being a benefic good for UL Sun was in 10th house with UL lord Venus that saved UL. Sun and Ketu is not bad for UL. For break in marriage or for this type or person better to say for a person to go out of marital bounders UL and 2nd there from have to be seen. UL have Jupiter that seems good but that Jupiter is debilitated in D9 it terrible. 2nd from UL is Rahu and Mars who shows break in marriage. 2 malefic in 2nd from UL are 99% surety for break in marriage here also mars is weak. And Rahu is exalted showing due to extra ambition, desire, and sexuality it will break. Lord of UL is also afflicted due to being in that conjunction in 2nd from UL and 8th from UL having an exalted planet shows 8th from UL is more powerful as compared to UL that shows marriage will sure break.
9. 30 May 1988, Rape, 18 year old, 30 Minutes assault – Jupiter PAD was running and we have seen role of Jupiter in adulterous yoga’s and also we have seen how he is afflicted DK and is unable to save UL. Lord of UL is also afflicted in Rashi as well as in D9. 2nd lord from UL have to be seen in D9 for marriage and see It applying jaimini aspect how he is afflicted in 6th house of D9. Moon was in 7th from UL moon in 7th is a hint towards adulteration, also it is in trine to A7 also he is aspecting A7 not UL. Sun is in UL but not with its lord as it was in last case.
10. 4 October 1988, Attempted rape, inflicted women with wounds on thigh and buttock (12 stitches) – Jupiter PD we have seen his role, Mercury SD as he is afflicted but not in adulterous yoga he haven’t let it materialize but moon in PAD as it is in 8th house in MKS in D1 he attacked the girl and gave her deep wounds. But was unsuccessful due to Jupiter’s transit over UL. Although moon was on A7 Sun was in ascendant and lord from UL was himself debilitated weak to let UL break. But due to favorable transits of Sun and moon he made wounds.
11. 16 November 1988, Rape, 18 years old – Sun SD Venus PAD. Sun was to block the happening of the event but due to power of Venus in D1 and his involvement in adulterous yoga’s in D9 it happened. In transit sun was in 3rd house 7th from UL aspecting A7 and moon was in 5th, 9th from UL aspecting UL showed his adulterous nature and his involvement in adulterous yoga.
12. 17 November 1988, Metro Police formed a special force to capture him – moon was in 6th house with Rahu and SD and PAD was changed to Moon. Just keep role of moon in mind we will see its role later. Moon is like Indra who is adulterous but at the same time king of gods moon too is king of Nakshatra like Sun is king or zodiac signs.
13. 27 December 1988, Attempted Rape – PD and SD was of Saturn but PAD was of mercury that is weak but not in adulterous yoga thus the event haven’t fructified.
14. 20 June 1989, Attempted Rape, he had scratches on his face due to fight – Ketu MD who is in adulterous yoga in D9, Venus PD he is also in adulterous yoga in D9, Sun SD this obstructed the event because he is not in adulterous yoga in D9. Rahu SAD as sun is always powerful as compared to Rahu (unless they are together) he blocked his effect. Also sun is in own house in D1 where Rahu is exalted but also afflicted. Sun in SD blocked Rahu to fructify the event. This sun also made him being injured why we will find later. Sun and moon in transit were aspecting each other Sun was in 2nd to UL with UL lord and Moon was in 8th to UL and 6th to A7 with 6th lord Saturn thus he was beaten by neighborhood public.
15. 15 August 1989, Rape, 22 year old, 2 hour Assault – Sun PD, Moon SD, Mercury PAD. Sun and moon both are in MKS whereas Mercury is not he is making connection with them but is not engaged in adulterous yoga’s in D9 but as he is retrograde if we take his effect from last house in D9 it will be in Virgo which will make him exalted. Being in 5th house of D9 he fell prey to aspect of Jupiter and Ketu and as Ketu is in AD and Rahu is in MD who is aspecting mercury by his 3rd aspect in D9 and well as in D1 for this reason even tough mercury is not in adulterous yoga he never blocked that yoga too. In transit sun was on A7 and moon in 7th to A7 and 9th to UL and 5th from ascendant whereas Sun was in 11th from Ascendant and 3rd from UL.
16. 21 November 1989, Rape, 15 years old, 45 Minutes – PD Rahu, SD and PAD mercury we know how he falls prey to Rahu. Sun was in trine to aspecting A7 and moon was in 2nd from A7 and 12th from Asc.
17. 22 December 1989, Rape, 19 years old, 30 minutes – PD, SD, PAD was of Jupiter who is weak DK, who is unable to save UL and in adulterous yoga’s in D9. Moon was in 2nd from Asc, 4th from A7 and 6th from UL. Sun was in 4th from Asc, 6th from A7 and 8th from UL.
18. 26 May 1990, Rape, 19 years old, 1 hour assault – Mercury PD, Jupiter SD, Rahu PAD, we have seen role of these 3 planets earlier, in transit sun was on UL and moon 2nd from UL 12th from A7.
Murders – he killed 3 women after giving them drug/alcohol overdose and then raped them while his wife filmed him, then he murdered all 3 of them.
1. Tammy Lyn Homolka – she was sister of his wife, whom his wife gave drug overdose, then filmed while Paul raped her and then killed the girl. On December 23, 1990 under Rahu MD that is 6th lord of hitting someone else or being hurt by someone else. Is with deadly mars in D1 and opposite of mars in D9, Rahu in D9 is in mysterious sign Scorpio. In D9 he is aspected by Ketu and Mars that both shows murder. Rahu in D1 is with 2nd 3rd 8th 9th lord here 3rd and 8th house are for longevity 2nd is a marak house and 9th is house of Purva Punya. All was spoiled by Rahu. In D30 Rahu is in 12th house of punishment, jail, outer world, with another malefic Saturn. Venus AD we know condition of Venus in D1 in D30 he is in 8th house in own sign aspected by Rahu. Sun PD lord is in 10th house aspected by mars and retrograde mercury. Rahu is also PD lord Moon is PAD lord who is in 2nd house in Aries. Moon in Aries is also like moon in Scorpio.
2. Leslie Erin Mahaffy – on 15 June 1991,(Ra-Ve-Ma-Ve-Su) they both after doing all their bad deeds murdered the girl with saw- Mars PD in D30 mars is in 4th house dig bal less, being aspected by Sun and Rahu. With retrograde mercury is off course not a good indication as per sufferings on soul of Paul is concerned. Planets whose effect has been seen earlier are not being discussed again.
3. Kristen Dawn French – on April 30, 1992 (Ra-Ve-Ju-Ra-Ve) they killed that school girl and left him naked on the road making her bald to refrain away from identification of body. Effect of Jupiter has to be seen here Jupiter is in MKS in D30 who was to give him death like suffering.
One thing that has to b noticed is as D30 is for misfortunes strong as well as weak both type of planets are not welcome in this chart. Powerful planet shows suffering due to excess of something and weak planet shows suffering due to starvation of that thing. In his D30 we can see ascendant lord is in MKS in 3rd house that shows this person having to face great suffering. 6th lord of D1 is vargottama here showing that his mistakes and weakness will be the cause because he will not realize his mistake and weakness and will keep on doing that and will suffer. Planet in 8th house in D30 shows the cause of suffering in this world and no wonder in his chart there is Venus in 8th house in D30 in Libra.
MKS Jupiter shows how his intelligence has been died, Mars of own sign shows his anger as his weakness and due to that mars have made his power his weakness and cause of suffering. Venus of own house in 8th house shows his sexuality and his cause of destruction and Rahu and Saturn in 12th house in own sign shows his cause of suffering as sadism given by Saturn and over-ambition, indulging too much into Maya. Harming other people. Remember here that Venus is also AK in 8th house in D30 showing that his soul is here to suffer only.
For the fear of making this article too large let we conclude by analyzing his date of apprehension.
Date apprehended – 17 February 1993 – Saturn is the planet who punishes us for our bas deeds. Here in D1 we can see Saturn and moon in 6-8 from ascendant makes Bandhan yoga (that gave him imprisonment) that same Saturn in D9 in the same 6-8 axis is once again making Bandhan yoga in D1 he have created it with moon that is Malefic (Jaimini takes Aries moon as malefic) and in D9 it is in Bandhan yoga with Mercury. Who is malefic due to his association with sun in D1. See the role of Sun and moon the 2 luminaries and celestial mother and father here. In parivritti-traya D3 there is Bandhan yoga in 5th and 9th house that constitutes Mars, Venus, Moon, Ketu. See those planets who gave him enjoyment now are punishing him. In jaimini Navamsha Rahu and Sun is making Bandhan yoga in 3-11 axis once again showing all those planets those were helping him is now opposing him. In 2 charts it is in 6-8 axis showing bad deeds and punishment due to that in 3-11 showing punishment due to wrong desires and their fulfillment in 5-9 axis punishment due t misuse of given Punya. D3 is very important in jaimini astrology because it shows use of free will, Hard-work, industrialism, use of hands. It was dasha of Rahu who is making Bandhan yoga in Jaimini D9. Venus AD that is making Bandhan yoga in PT-D3, mercury PD who is making Bandhan yoga in normal D9, Jupiter SD who is debilitated in D9 in jaimini D9 as well as in normal D9 showing fall of his intellect and bad karma and now punishment arising out of that. Saturn PAD. The one who is making Bandhan yoga in D1 and D9 the law maker, the Yama between planets. Saturn represents Brahma that writes our destiny. The law maker Saturn has given him the punishment of his wrong doings.
So many points and techniques in analysis I have left for readers to explore and to find by reading between the lines. This case was a best example to show how planets works as per deed of gods, a planet is never malefic never benefic based on your karma either he blesses you or punishes you. This case is an example to all of us to stop for some time and think on what we are doing, why we are doing, are we doing right, are we doing what god wants us to do. We should think everything. Only this makes us distinct from animals that we can think on what we are doing.
2. Why I am doing it
3. What will be its results
Om Tat Sat